Basic economics holds that demand for a product is fundamental for market survival.
Without demand for services there would be no market for this particular product--sex trafficking victims. Demand is created by men and women predominantly men who seek to purchase sex or sexual entertainment from persons who have been subject to force, fraud or coercion or who are under the age of 18 years and are involved in commercial sex. As the demand increases, traffickers must increase the supply of victims. The buyer in this marketplace views the victim as a dehumanized product for immediate consumption and disposal. If buyers were not seeking commercial sexual services, then sex trafficking would cease to be a profitable venture.
The supply of women and children in the sex industry serves as the fuel for this criminal slave trade and must increase to meet growing demand for sexual services throughout the world. Demand affects the market structure and the type of product made available. This desire for sex with younger girls has led to large s of juveniles exploited through prostitution around the globe — per se sex trafficking victims under the U.
Protocol and the U. Cultures of tolerance differ from country to country, and sometimes vary within countries or even cities, but the essence is the same: societal acceptance backed by political tolerance.
Marketplaces of commercial sexual exploitation require some level of tolerance within the community in order to exist. Throughout the United States, where major highways intersect, there are numerous opportunities to stop for paid sex with a prostituted girl, pick her up or drop her off. The label also benefits the buyers who in response to the lack of alarm within the trucking community seem to have little fear of intervention by police or fellow truckers.
A December Innocence Lost Initiative law enforcement operation at the Gables of Harrisburg truck stop, just off the major highway I in Linglestown, Pennsylvania rescued over two dozen prostituted minors, the youngest just 12 years old, from Toledo, Ohio. Local Harrisburg police and FBI agents working with the Innocence Lost Initiative arrested sixteen pimps who have been indicted as co-conspirators for Girls for sex Kansas craigslist in women and children, among other crimes. The ready supply of this victim-product at truck stops coupled with the attitude of dehumanizing her simply serves to increase demand for commercial sex with these young victims.
Situational buyers in the realm of CSEC are defined as those who engage minors in commercial sex because they are available, vulnerable and the practice is tolerated.
Preferential buyers, such as pedophiles, have a sexual preference and shop specifically in the markets providing the preferred victim or service. Due to intensive marketing and the increased normalization of commercial sex in society, buyers from a young age are groomed to glamorize commercial sex, to dehumanize the women and children exploited, and even to express aggression toward the victims through violent video games and violent pornography.
They have difficulty maintaining relationships and focus heavily on their work. Many times they do not intend to endanger their current relationship with a wife or girlfriend, but are unable to stop the relationship with prostitution.
Particularly because prostitution is legal and readily available, in their minds they are able to separate the two worlds so that there is not a conflict of interest. In the U. Preferential buyers will go to great lengths to obtain their preferred product, e. If it was really so bad, the Japanese cops would close them down, right? Twelve percent of the men reported they had used more than women in prostitution.
Most reported buying sex 15 times, although the s ranged from one to 2, However, research from Atlanta, Georgia, USA illustrates the demand presented in that state alone providing some indication of the demand nationwide. The majority of the buyers were located in the northern suburbs, an area populated predominantly by white, middle class, married men. An example of the demand effect created by buyers can be found in the United States surrounding large events, such as the Sundance Film Festival held in Salt Lake City, the Ultimate Fighting Championships held in Las Vegas each year, and the Super Bowl held in different cities each year.
Law enforcement noted that during these events traffickers move victims into the city in response to the expected increased demand, resulting in a higher incidence rate of adults and minors arrested for prostitution in both locations. For example, similar to the phenomenon seen in the United States, truck stops have been the target of anti-demand activities in Brazil.
Leading this effort is the Brazil oil company Petrobras. Recognizing that the transient trucking community is often a primary driver of demand, Petrobras has poured ificant funding into raising awareness of the commercial sexual exploitation of children within the trucking communities.
The de-stigmatization in the Netherlands extends to the men purchasing commercial sex, but not to the women being prostituted. This seems particularly true for tourists, while research in the Netherlands observed that the Dutch buyers of commercial sex in one town were mostly from other towns within driving distance but out of eyesight of neighbors and family, calling into question the actual level of acceptability of prostitution in Dutch society. Legalization undoubtedly has freed many men from the stigma of buying commercial sexual services, thereby increasing the demand for commercial sex while the of women voluntarily entering the officially de-stigmatized commercial sex market has not increased.
While men are buying sex, they fail to see the mechanics of the delivery of the women providing the sex—often forced, defrauded or coerced and violently managed by a pimp. This does not reflect the environment of legal prostitution envisioned by legislators and society in the Netherlands.
In fact, they had traveled to 42 countries between them. Not surprisingly, Girls for sex Kansas craigslist of the men had traveled to Amsterdam because, as they noted, prostitution is legal. Sexually oriented entertainment pervades the city and in the trafficking of women and, increasingly, children to Las Vegas to be used in the commercial sex industry to satisfy the sizable demand. The trafficking of children into Las Vegas to satisfy the demand for commercial sex can be measured in the arrests of these same children. In Clark County, Nevada includes Las Vegasan entire court docket is scheduled one day each week to hear the cases of juveniles charged with prostitution; in 20 months, juveniles from across the country were adjudicated by the court for prostitution and prostitution-related offenses committed in Las Vegas.
In the first half of Traffickers include Las Vegas on any prostitution circuit they move their victim-products. Widespread availability and affordability of digital cameras and video cameras makes the production of child pornography and pornography involving sex trafficking victims easy and inexpensive. The Internet is often used as a broker for women in escort agencies and to attract possible buyers.
Cellular telephones also allow facilitators to take a picture of the victim and send it to a prospective buyer, all with relative anonymity. The report states that more boys than girls receive unwanted exposure and most of this exposure involves youth between the ages of 14 and This group already has been shown to possess tremendous buying power today, and is being groomed to produce the buyers of tomorrow. In a survey of men, conducted by The Defenders USA, of the men age indicated that websites were the predominant influence leading them to view pornography. The Defenders USA survey indicates that respondents first viewed pornography at approximately twelve years of age.
Early viewing of pornography may serve as an incubator of future buyers of commercial sex services in this and other markets.
Four of these sites offered marriage services as an additional option. The graphic and aggressive nature of these sex tour websites leaves no question as to the intent of the tour operators. With increased infrastructure and affordability of personal computers, the trend evident in more technologically advanced countries will undoubtedly make itself felt in those currently lagging behind in technology.
Men predominantly travel to engage in sex in locations where it is tolerated and even encouraged. For example, Jamaica presents a broad spectrum ranging from western women as buyers to local men as consumers increasingly entering the sex market as it grows and becomes more normalized. This sex tourism creates an environment in which commercial sex is readily available and marketed to both the tourists and the local buyers, driving the demand higher among local buyers.
Though Jamaica is commonly seen as a haven for sex tourists from wealthy countries, Girls for sex Kansas craigslist least one recent report and field observations suggest that more and more Jamaican males, including young professionals, are buying sexual favors from men and women who reside on the island.
This demand is satisfied year round directly through the club owners and managers who move girls from town to town to satisfy the local demand. The reality is that buyers of commercial sex are rarely prosecuted. Buyers of sex with minors also face minimal risk of criminal repercussions. Utilizing a conservative estimate, a domestic minor sex trafficking victim who is rented for sex acts with five different men per night, for five nights per week, for an average of five years, would have been raped by 6, buyers during the course of her victimization through prostitution.
Most of these buyers would receive little or no punishment, while many of the child victims are arrested and charged with the crime committed against them. However, prosecution of the buyers of commercial sex is a strong deterrent and should be utilized more often.
Faced with legal ramifications, many men will choose not to buy commercial sex, and the communities will understand that this crime will not be tolerated. Most were only arrested once, though one man stated that he had been arrested 25 times.
Recognizing the success, five other U. Weak legislation in many states and a lack of directive within the federal government to pursue buyers of trafficking victims with a federal crime has resulted in a law enforcement focus on traffickers and the girls they are exploiting.
Even when buyers are arrested for the crime of commercial sex abuse of a minor or some other state law variantmany of these laws are weak, providing little deterrent. Another gap in some state laws is the ability to assert a defense of mistake of age.
In the state of Washington, legislation closed this loophole by adding the crime of commercial sex abuse of a minor to the list of crimes that do not permit a defense of mistake of age; a much harder defense of a bona fide attempt to ascertain the true age through checking government-issued identification can be asserted however.
Shifting the burden of proof from the child to the buyer should be a part of all legal reform efforts as it was in Washington and is being debated currently in varying forms in other states. One such deterrent is a diversion program established in several cities, in which men arrested for buying commercial sex can choose to participate in Johns Schools aimed at educating the buyers of commercial sex on the trauma and victimization suffered by the girls providing the commercial sexual services.
These programs are a community-based response to addressing the demand of local buyers.
It is acknowledged that the Johns Schools are a post-victimization response and a secondary deterrent as the criminal sexual exploitation is already committed, but the schools provide an opportunity for the victims to be heard and may have an effect on the recidivism of offenders. Nor is it appropriate to offer this diversion to buyers of commercial sex from women who are victims of trafficking due to force, fraud or coercion being used to secure their prostitution activities.
However, if effective in reducing demand for prostitution overall, Johns Schools will consequently reduce the demand for commercial sex with adult victims of force, fraud or coercion and minors.
The most vulnerable population of youth is the homeless and runaway girls, most of whom are quickly recruited by traffickers and put into prostitution. For example, Carlson-Wagonlit Companies, based in the United States, has ed the Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in Travel and Tourism, committing this large hotel and restaurant network to be vigilant against child sex tourism in the many locations and venues constituting the consortium. InJapanese travel agents and tourist industry groups ed an international code of conduct to protect children from sexual exploitation in tourist destinations, such as Southeast Asia.
By ing the code, travel agents are required to implement six measures, including training personnel in countries that are travel destinations and putting a clause in contracts with local agents forbidding sexual exploitation of children. However, the stances taken by the hotels officially do not always trickle down to the lower level or auxiliary staff, who may continue to facilitate the exploitation of women and children within the hotels and resorts. ZIP: 74347